1. Alison Frantz, Generations United Fact Sheet: Challenges of Caring for the Second Family, (January 10, 2002) available at

2. In the 1990 census, there was a 44 percent increase over the preceding decade in the number of children living with their grandparents or other relatives. See Esme Fuller-Thomson & Meredith Minkler, America's Grandparent Caregivers: Who are They?, in Grandparents Raising Grandchildren 3, 3(Bert Hayslip, Jr. et al. eds., 2000.)

3. This represents an increase of more than 100 percent. In 1990, 23,000 children lived in grandparent-headed households.

4. 2000 U.S. Census Bureau Population Survey.

5 The manual includes references to Minnesota Statutes (MINN. STAT. §.) Statutes are available at public libraries and on line at

6. See Appendix B.

7.Wallin v. Wallin, 290 Minn. 261, 264, 187 N.W.2d 627, 629 (1971).

8. The Rules are posted on the Court's web site:

9. The juvenile court act defines "relative" as: "a person related to the child by blood, marriage, or adoption, or an individual who is an important friend with whom the child has resided or had significant contact." MINN. STAT. § 260C.007, Subd. 27. This includes current foster parents. "For an Indian child, relative includes members of the extended family as defined by the law or custom of the Indian child's tribe or, in the absence of law or custom, nieces, nephews, or first or second cousins, as provided in the Indian Child Welfare Act of 1978, United States Code, title 25, section 1903." MINN. STAT. § 260C.007, Subd. 27.

10. R. Forehand, J. et al, Orphans of the AIDS Epidemic in the United States: Transition-related Characteristics and Psychosocial Adjustment in 6 Months After Mother's Death, AIDS Care (1999) at 715-22 (quoting A.M. Boxer, Child Care Arrangements of Children Whose Mothers Have Died of AIDS, Paper presented at the International AIDS Conference, Geneva, Switzerland (1998).

11. Geballe, S. et al, Forgotten Children of the AIDS Epidemic at 132 (Yale Press, 1995).

12. Lisa Merkel-Holguin, Children Who Lose Their Parents to HIV/AIDS: Agency Guidelines for Adoptive and Kinship Placement, pp. 50-54 (Child Welfare League of America, 1996).

13. Geballa at 135.

14. Merkel-Holguin at 54.

15. For the appeal procedure for SSI, see the Supplemental Security Income (SSI) Chapter.

16. See

17. See

18. Income figures used here are for tax year 2006. For updated figures refer to .

19. A person is an eligible foster child if the child is placed by an authorized placement agency or by judgment, decree, or other order of any court of competent jurisdiction.

20. See =LatestReleased&Redirected=true&dDocName=id 006250.

21. Id.

22. For more information see